Nature essay – Excelsior Writers |
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In the early works of the course, we see Nature presented in multiple ways. The elements, animals, and nature are mentioned by the Iroquois as they outline their political process; “nature” has a very different meaning to Jonathan Edwards—a Puritan discussing philosophical and religious living— in A Divine and Supernatural Light and Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God; later, American writers present nature when discussing their spiritual beliefs and how to go about living in the world.

In this assignment, you will compare and contrast the concept of “nature” from the earliest writings (The Iroquois League & the work of Jonathan Edwards) to the later American idea of nature found in the work of Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman.

This assignment should reflect your understanding of the works you’ve chosen to discuss, and explain—based on research—how the earlier work influences the later pieces, and analyze how the literature reflected the culture of the time. Historical context is discussed in the textbook, and can be used as supporting material in your paper.

The Final Paper must include a thesis—this is a statement which you will be supporting throughout your paper.You will make claims and provide evidence to show those claims are true.Support your claims by citing research—quotes or ideas—from other authors.When citing an author, it’s best to explain how the quote supports your original idea, present the quote, and then show how that quote advances your claims.

This paper should focus on the ideas, beliefs, values, images, and writing of the literature at hand in the context of the selected works.Your personal life experiences should not be used as evidence in making your claims.Keep your ideas rooted in the text.For sources other than the primary works found in the textbook, it is recommended you turn to the Recommended Readings, all found in JSTOR. Feel free to search for other articles in that database—they are all credible and recognized for academic integrity.


Abolitionist Movements, 1824-1834. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 21(2), 31-59. Retrieved from

Benner Roach, H. (Apr., 1960). Benjamin Franklin Slept Here.The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography.84( 2), 127 – 174.Retrieved from

C., H. (1987). Common Sense about Thomas Paine. The Acturial Radical, 67-77.

Donne, J. (1573). Satire, Love, Poetry,Elergy and Sermons. Metaphysical Poetry, 12-27.

Edwards’, J. (1741). Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Retrieved from

Franklin, Benjamin. (2003). Fart proudly: writings of benjamin franklin you never read in school. Japikse, C. (Ed). Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd.

Franklin, B., Woolman, J., & Penn, W. (1909). The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (Vol. 1). PF Collier.

Hitchens, C. (1987). The Actuarial Radical: Common Sense about Thomas Paine. Grand Street, 7(1), 67-77. doi:10.2307/25007041 Retrieved from

Isaacson, W. (2003). Benjamin Franklin: An American Life. Simon and Schuster.

Jadviga, N. (1980). Red Jacket: The Man and His Portraits. American Art Journal, 12(3), 5-20. Retrieved from

Jensen, T. B. (2000). The Imaginary Connection Between the Great Law of Peace and the United States Constitution: A Reply to Professor Schaaf. American Indian Law Review, 23(6), 125-208.

McMichael, G. L., & Leonard, J. S. (2011). Concise Anthology of American Literature. Boston: Longman.

Morgan, T. B. (2002). The League of the Iroquois (Vol. 2). New York, Corinth Books.

Nunes, J. d. (1980). Red Jacket: The Man and His Portraits. American Art Journal, 5-20.

Park, J. (2012). The Difference Between a Speech and a Sermon. Awkward Theological Moments, 1-17.

Richter, Z. G. (2011). The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the era of European colonization. UNC Press Books.

Rubin-Dorsky, J. (Dec. 1986). Washington Irving: Sketches of Anxiety. American Literature, 58(4), 499-522. Retrieved from

Rycenga, J. (Fall 2005). A Greater Awakening: Women’s Intellect as a Factor in Early

Tooker, L. (2008). The United States Constitution and the Iroquois League. Ethnohistory, 605-636. Retrieved from

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